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Separator divides deferent kinds of Persian carpet and rug based on their region
 

The characteristics and important factor that have made the carpets of this land world- famous are their pleasant, varied and unique design. Each Persian carpet has a design of its own, so that thousands of fascinating designs can be seen in the whole range of Persian carpets, each being very beautiful and possessing perfect harmony.

When the Persian artist, gifted with very good taste, came into contact with the culture and arts of new settlers in the country and also with the culture and arts of those who invaded this country, they selected the designs which were most appealing and pleasing and incorporated them in their national designs. Thus, with the presentation of all the designs, the original ones and those introduced later, the artists were able to raise the art of carpet designing to its highest level.

The joint efforts of these designers together with the work of experienced dyers and the silk of artistic and patient weavers eventually resulted in the production of a most beautiful and glorious creation the “Persian Carpet”. The durability and unique fineness of Persian rugs and carpets, together with the special quality of the wool used and the brilliant fast colours gave Persian carpets their world wide reputation and placed them on the throne of the carpet art and industry.

Progress towards the perfection of the designs of Persian carpets was gradual. According to historical evidence, the designs prior to the Safavid dynasty were all geometrical.

During this period, the art of carpet design, like other fine arts, reached perfection. It must also be stressed that at the same time the motifs portrayed on the tiles of the buildings, the forms worked on the plaster-mouldings and the designs of the carpets influenced and enriched each other.

The attractive designs of Persian carpets and the harmonious dyes have for many years been accepted by all those interested in carpets. Today, most of the carpet weaving centres in the world, fully aware of this universal acceptance, weave their carpets with Persian designs and do not make much effort to present new designs, as they feel that they cannot improve on the existing ones.

With the exception of those carpets portraying scenes or faces, most Persian carpets are symmetrical.

Classification of the Persian carpet on the base of the design
Before talking about the variety of the design, it is opportune to mention that all the designs can basically be categorised into three principal groups. All the motifs and figures which constituted the design are made from composition, contact, rotation and balance of the lines

If the lines along their route make angles the design is in geometrical style. But if the lines in their course don’t make angles, the design will be classified in the curvilinear group. Should the lines of the design in some part of their route make angles and in others make roundish movements the design belongs to the stylised group. Most Persian carpets are decorated with medallion, (Toranj), and corners.

The medallion is always located in the centre of the Layout and the shape may be round, oval, rhomboid or radial of different sizes which varies according to the taste and custom of the weavers. Instead of a single medallion we may find two or three medallions on the central line of the carpet. Usually on the top and bottom of medallion there are two pendants,(Sartoranj). One fourth of the medallion shape or something of a similar form when repeated in the corners of the field is named corner Lachack. All Persian designs are categorised in two main groups.

Tribal designs
These designs have been influenced by old and noble Persian Patterns that were created by the native carpet weavers. The simplicity of life enjoyed by the weavers is reflected in the style of their production. In spite of the patterns, which are not ordered and regular, the designs are still attractive and pleasant.

The designers have transferred these patterns from one district to another so that these designs can be found from the furthest east to the furthest west of the country. Sometimes these designs are recognised by the name of the production zone such as Maziaghan, Ferdous, Veis, and may take the name of the Chieftain such as Salar-Khflni, Yaghub Khani, All- Mirzai. Heibatlu is one of the most famous patterns of this group which is associated to Abadeh in the province of Fars. Most tribal designs are in geometric and stylised style.

Urban designs
The designs of Urban carpets in comparison to tribal patterns are more elaborate and precise, therefore to realise them the weaver needs to use the tenplate.

Every compartment of this millimetric sheet represents one knot of the carpet.

Here below we study thirteen kinds of designs.

Shah-Abbasi design
The basic sketch is formed from specially designed flowers, which are known as Shah Abbasi. It is set off by other floral designs and occasionally Eslimi motif, these abstract flowers form the main design in the field and the border, all over (Afshan), medallion, Sheikh-Safi, tree, animal, turreted medallion are the better known in the secondary group of this design.

Arabesque (Eslimi)
Abstract circular branches of a tree amidst leaves are the basic form of this design.

The branches are adorned with foliate spurs known as Eslimi. There are many kinds of
Eslimi designs predominating in some carpets of which the Dahan Ajdari is the best
known.

Vase (Goldani)
The shape of the vase in different sizes can be seen in the carpet of this category. Some large vases are repeated throughout the ground.

Mehrabi vase, Zell-e-Sultan vase, Hal khanumi vase, all over vase are the minor groups of this design

Harati design
This beautiful nomadic design was created in the city of Harat (the capital of Timur) now in Afghanistan. A basic sketch is formed from a central diamond shaped figure framed by four slightly curling leaves which could be repeated in the field and the borders.

Entwined fish (Mahi-dar-ham) pattern is one of the sub-patterns of this category which was produced for the first time in Khorasan but gradually it found its way to other carpet weaving areas of Iran.

Sub — patterns are: Mahi (fish)Farahan, Mahi Sanandaj.

Tree design
The base of this design is a tree. Sub-patterns include: tree and animal, floral profusion, vase tree , cypress tree.
Botteh design (Paisley Pattern)

The Botteh design is the abstract form of the cypress tree common in both Indian and Iranian patterns from olden times and for many years t had had a good market. There are various forms and sizes in the Botteh designs in Iran. The famous one of this category are: Botteh jegheh, Botteh terme, Botteh saräband or Botteh Mir, Botteh Ghalamkar Esfahan, Botteh Kordastani and Botteh Afshari.

Panel design
The field of the carpet in this design is divided by some lateral panels and the carpet looks just like a chess-board. The interior of each panel is decorated by the traditional motif of each district such as vase, Botteh, bunch of Grapes, Willow, flowers, birds, animals etc. This design which is originally from Bakhtiari area, is appreciated also by the craftsmen of Tabriz, Ghom, Birjand. Sub — patterns are Bakhtiari panel, Eslimi panel.

Historical building design
To create these designs the inspiration has been taken from the tile work and architecture of ancient buildings. In the course of history carpet designers have copied the main patterns and created similar designs.

Portrait and pictorial
In this kind of designs, political personages, portraits, landscapes and painting are depicted and constitute the main subjects of this category, which are common in the high level workshops of Tehran, Tabriz and Kerman.

Prayer (Mehrabi) design
The prayer niche in the mosque where the Imam prays inspires the basic design of the rug. Some ornaments such as columns, headband, candelabrum (Ghadil), Shah Abbasi flowers, may enrich this design. Among the numerous variations are tree prayer (Mehrabi Derakhti), vase prayer (Mehrabi Goldani), candelabrum prayer (Mehrabi Ghandili).

Afshan design
Normally in carpet designs all the components and forms are joined and linked together as if the painter’s pen has never ceased its movement from the beginning until the end of the sketch. In the Afshan design, the flowers, branches and other motifs are scattered on the surface of the carpet without being joined.

Well-known patterns in this group are: Afshan Shah Abbasi, Afshan bouquet of flower, Afshan gol Farang.

Interconnected (Bandi)
When a small portion of a design is repeated and connected throughout the length and width, the pattern is called interconnected (Bandi).

Sub patterns of this group are known as Bandi Varamin or Mina — Khani, Bandi Eslimi,
Bandi Mollah Nasreddin, interconnected cartouche, interconnected deer horn (Bandi
Shakh Gavazni).

Stripped (Moharramat) design
This name is applied to designs which are repeat in narrow strips along the length of a carpet.

Each strip has its own specific colour and design in some areas of Iran this pattern is also known as Ghalamdani. Botteh Moharramat is one of the sub — patterns of this design.

 
Separator divides deferent kinds of Persian carpet and rug based on their region

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